There are currently two sets of tests in the /test/ directory:
- functional which test the functionality of bitcoind and bitcoin-qt by interacting with them through the RPC and P2P interfaces.
- util which tests the bitcoin utilities, currently only bitcoin-tx.
The util tests are run as part of
make check target. The functional
tests are run by the Teamcity continuous build process whenever a diff is
created or updated on Phabricator. Both sets of tests can also be run locally.
Running functional tests locally
Build for your system first. Be sure to enable wallet, utils and daemon when you configure. Tests will not run otherwise.
The ZMQ functional test requires a python ZMQ library. To install it:
- On Unix, run
sudo apt-get install python3-zmq
- On mac OS, run
pip3 install pyzmq
Running the tests
Individual tests can be run by directly calling the test script, eg:
or can be run through the test_runner harness, eg:
You can run any combination (incl. duplicates) of tests by calling:
test/functional/test_runner.py <testname1> <testname2> <testname3> ...
Run the regression test suite with:
Run all possible tests with
By default, up to 4 tests will be run in parallel by test_runner. To specify
how many jobs to run, append
The individual tests and the test_runner harness have many command-line
test_runner.py -h to see them all.
Troubleshooting and debugging test failures
The P2P and RPC ports used by the bitcoind nodes-under-test are chosen to make conflicts with other processes unlikely. However, if there is another bitcoind process running on the system (perhaps from a previous test which hasn't successfully killed all its bitcoind nodes), then there may be a port conflict which will cause the test to fail. It is recommended that you run the tests on a system where no other bitcoind processes are running.
On linux, the test_framework will warn if there is another bitcoind process running when the tests are started.
If there are zombie bitcoind processes after test failure, you can kill them by running the following commands. Note that these commands will kill all bitcoind processes running on the system, so should not be used if any non-test bitcoind processes are being run.
pkill -9 bitcoind
Data directory cache
A pre-mined blockchain with 200 blocks is generated the first time a functional test is run and is stored in test/cache. This speeds up test startup times since new blockchains don't need to be generated for each test. However, the cache may get into a bad state, in which case tests will fail. If this happens, remove the cache directory (and make sure bitcoind processes are stopped as above):
rm -rf cache killall bitcoind
The tests contain logging at different levels (debug, info, warning, etc). By default:
- When run through the test_runner harness, all logs are written to
test_framework.logand no logs are output to the console.
- When run directly, all logs are written to
test_framework.logand INFO level and above are output to the console.
- When run on Travis, no logs are output to the console. However, if a test
debug.logs will all be dumped to the console to help troubleshooting.
To change the level of logs output to the console, use the
-l command line
test_framework.log and bitcoind
debug.logs can be combined into a single
aggregate log by running the
combine_logs.py script. The output can be plain
text, colorized text or html. For example:
combine_logs.py -c <test data directory> | less -r
will pipe the colorized logs from the test into less.
--tracerpc to trace out all the RPC calls and responses to the console.
For some tests (eg any that use
submitblock to submit a full block over RPC),
this can result in a lot of screen output.
By default, the test data directory will be deleted after a successful run.
--nocleanup to leave the test data directory intact. The test data
directory is never deleted after a failed test.
Attaching a debugger
A python debugger can be attached to tests at any point. Just add the line:
import pdb; pdb.set_trace()
anywhere in the test. You will then be able to inspect variables, as well as call methods that interact with the bitcoind nodes-under-test.
If further introspection of the bitcoind instances themselves becomes
necessary, this can be accomplished by first setting a pdb breakpoint
at an appropriate location, running the test to that point, then using
gdb to attach to the process and debug.
For instance, to attach to
self.node during a run:
2017-06-27 14:13:56.686000 TestFramework (INFO): Initializing test directory /tmp/user/1000/testo9vsdjo3
use the directory path to get the pid from the pid file:
cat /tmp/user/1000/testo9vsdjo3/node1/regtest/bitcoind.pid gdb /home/example/bitcoind <pid>
Note: gdb attach step may require
sudo. To get rid of this, you can run:
echo 0 | sudo tee /proc/sys/kernel/yama/ptrace_scope
Prevent using deprecated features
Python will issue a
DeprecationWarning when a deprecated feature is
encountered in a script. By default, this warning message is ignored and not
displayed to the user. This behavior can be changed by setting the environment
PYTHONWARNINGS as follow:
The warning message will now be printed to the
Util tests can be run locally by running
-v option for verbose output.
Writing functional tests
The example_test.py is a heavily commented example of a test case that uses both the RPC and P2P interfaces. If you are writing your first test, copy that file and modify to fit your needs.
test_runner.py with the
--coverage argument tracks which RPCs are
called by the tests and prints a report of uncovered RPCs in the summary. This
can be used (along with the
--extended argument) to find out which RPCs we
don't have test cases for.
- Where possible, try to adhere to PEP-8 guidelines
- Use a python linter like flake8 before submitting PRs to catch common style nits (eg trailing whitespace, unused imports, etc)
- Avoid wildcard imports where possible
- Use a module-level docstring to describe what the test is testing, and how it is testing it.
- When subclassing the BitcoinTestFramwork, place overrides for the
setup_xxxx()methods at the top of the subclass, then locally-defined helper methods, then the
General test-writing advice
self.num_nodesto the minimum number of nodes necessary for the test. Having additional unrequired nodes adds to the execution time of the test as well as memory/CPU/disk requirements (which is important when running tests in parallel or on Travis).
- Avoid stop-starting the nodes multiple times during the test if possible. A stop-start takes several seconds, so doing it several times blows up the runtime of the test.
- Set the
set_test_params()to control whether or not to use the cached data directories. The cached data directories contain a 200-block pre-mined blockchain and wallets for four nodes. Each node has 25 mature blocks (25x50=1250 BTC) in its wallet.
- When calling RPCs with lots of arguments, consider using named keyword arguments instead of positional arguments to make the intent of the call clear to readers.
- Many of the core test framework classes such as
CTransactiondon't allow new attributes to be added to their objects at runtime like typical Python objects allow. This helps prevent unpredictable side effects from typographical errors or usage of the objects outside of their intended purpose.
RPC and P2P definitions
Test writers may find it helpful to refer to the definitions for the RPC and P2P messages. These can be found in the following source files:
/src/wallet/rpc*for wallet RPCs
/src/net_processing.cppfor parsing P2P messages
Using the P2P interface
messages.pycontains all the definitions for objects that pass over the network (
CTransaction, etc, along with the network-level wrappers for them,
- P2P tests have two threads. One thread handles all network communication with the bitcoind(s) being tested in a callback-based event loop; the other implements the test logic.
P2PConnectionis the class used to connect to a bitcoind.
P2PInterfacecontains the higher level logic for processing P2P payloads and connecting to the Bitcoin Core node application logic. For custom behaviour, subclass the P2PInterface object and override the callback methods.
- Can be used to write tests where specific P2P protocol behavior is tested.
Examples tests are
Taken from the python-bitcoinrpc repository.
Base class for functional tests.
Generally useful functions.
Basic code to support P2P connectivity to a bitcoind.
Utilities for manipulating transaction scripts (originally from python-bitcoinlib)
Wrapper around OpenSSL EC_Key (originally from python-bitcoinlib)
Helpers for script.py
Helper functions for creating blocks and transactions.